Middle East Kingdoms

A black basalt slab with a decree of Ptolemy V in three different languages Greek, demotic and hieroglyphics. Discovered at Rosetta in by French soldiers June Total eclipse of the Moon. Gallus before battle Greek Conquest: Anicius Gallus conquers Epirus Battle of Pydna. Romans defeat the Greeks.


Jews and temple treasures. Nehemiah rebuilds in 52 days. Ptolemy I takes Jerusalem. Antiochus III takes over. Antiochus IV religious persecution. After years the Jews rule Jerusalem and Judea for the next 80 years.

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The International History Project The Babylonian civilization, which endured from the 18th until the 6th century BC, was, like the Sumerian that preceded it, urban in character, although based on agriculture rather than industry. The country consisted of a dozen or so cities, surrounded by villages and hamlets. At the head of the political structure was the king, a more or less absolute monarch who exercised legislative and judicial as well as executive powers.

Under him was a group of appointed governors and administrators. Mayors and councils of city elders were in charge of local administration. History of the Babylonians and the region of Babylonia Babylon Chronology And History An essential condition for adequate knowledge of an ancient people is the possession of a continuous historical tradition in the form of oral or written records. This, however, in spite of the mass of contemporaneous documents of almost every sort, which the spade of the excavator has unearthed and the skill of the scholar deciphered, is not available for scientific study of Babylonian or Assyrian antiquity.

From the far-off morning of the beginnings of the two peoples to their fall, no historians appeared to gather up the memorials of their past, to narrate and preserve the annals of these empires, to hand down their achievements to later days. Consequently, where contemporaneous records fail, huge gaps occur in the course of historical development, to be bridged over only partially by the combination of a few facts with more or less ingenious inferences or conjectures.

Sometimes what has been preserved from a particular age reveals clearly enough the artistic or religious elements of its life, but offers only vague hints of its political activity and progress. The true perspective of the several periods is sometimes lost, as when really critical epochs in the history of these peoples are dwarfed and distorted by a lack of sources of knowledge, while others, less significant, but plentifully stocked with a variety of available material, bulk large and assume an altogether unwarranted prominence.

What the Babylonians and Assyrians failed to do in supplying a continuous historical record was not accomplished for them by the later historians of antiquity. Herodotus, in the first Book of his “Histories,” devotes twenty-three chapters to Babylonian affairs Bk. But the latter, if written, has been utterly lost, and the chapters just mentioned, while containing information of value, especially that which he himself collected on the ground, or drew from an earlier traveller, presumably Hecataeus of Miletus, give distorted and fantastic legends where sober history might be expected.

Bible Chronology Timeline

All rights reserved Any redistribution or reproduction of part or all of the contents in any form is prohibited other than the following: You may print or download to a local hard disk extracts for your personal use only. You may not distribute or commercially use the content on any other website or other form of electronic retrieval system. If we ask a rabbi the date of Rosh Hashana, he will explain that it is the first of the Jewish month Tishri, but that it falls on different dates in our September or October in successive years, since it comes approximately at the new moon.

The reason for this is that the Jews have a lunar calendar, now modified in form but originally reckoned by the moon. In ancient times the appearance of the new crescent after sunset, following several moonless nights, marked the beginning of the first day of each new month.

Title, astronomical dating of babylon i and more at by p. Lunar month consists of babylon i and ur iii. Section tv consists of babylon i and ads., available at book depository with libraries, a.

The beginning of the Persian War. The end of the Persian War. Pericles builds up Athens and strengthens democracy. Athens becomes increasingly antagonistic to Sparta. Essentially all the Greek states were involved on one side or the other. It ended with defeat for Athens. The Melian Dialogue of Thucydides. He presides over the Academy from BC to his death in His reasons for setting up the Academy were connected with his earlier ventures into politics. He had been bitterly disappointed with the standards displayed by those in public office and he hoped to train, in his Academy, young men who would become statesmen.

However, having given them the values that Plato believed in, Plato thought that these men would be able to improve the political leadership of the cities of Greece. He creates the first catalog of the stars, showing their brightness and position. He also discovers the precession of the equinoxes by comparing star observations of different years and noticing that the stars had shifted eastward.

Nowruz – The Persian New Year and The Spring Equinox

Then philosophy migrated from every direction to Athens itself, at the center, the wealthiest commercial power and the most famous democracy of the time [ note ]. Socrates, although uninterested in wealth himself, nevertheless was a creature of the marketplace, where there were always people to meet and where he could, in effect, bargain over definitions rather than over prices. Similarly, although Socrates avoided participation in democratic politics, it is hard to imagine his idiosyncratic individualism, and the uncompromising self-assertion of his defense speech, without either wealth or birth to justify his privileges, occurring in any other political context.

If a commercial democracy like Athens provided the social and intellectual context that fostered the development of philosophy, we might expect that philosophy would not occur in the kind of Greek city that was neither commercial nor democratic.

Astronomical Chronology. Since the earliest days of Assyriology, the ancient observations of lunar and solar eclipses, planetary configurations and other celestial phenomena reported on cuneiform tablets have been studied and employed for chronological purposes.

The sources[ edit ] This Venus tablet is part of Enuma anu enlil “In the days of Anu and Enlil” , a long text dealing with Babylonian astrology , which mostly consists of omens interpreting celestial phenomena. The earliest copy of this tablet to be published, a 7th-century BC cuneiform , part of the British Museum collections, was recovered from the library at Nineveh. As many as 20 copies of this text are currently on record, many of them fragmentary, falling into 6 groups.

The following dates, corresponding to the High, Middle , Low and Ultra-Low Chronologies , were inferred for the beginning of the Venus observations: The tablet’s significance for corroborating Babylonian chronology was first recognised by Franz Xaver Kugler in , when he succeeded in identifying the enigmatic “Year of the Golden Throne” “Venus” tablet K. Problems of atmospheric refraction were addressed by Vahe Gurzadyan in a publication.

Daily Life

In Shinar they rebelled against God and set out to build a city and tower to make a name for themselves and keep from scattering Genesis Our search for the Tower of Babel will therefore begin by locating the land of Shinar. As we shall see further on, the language spoken in Shinar was one of the rather large family of related Semitic languages, of which Hebrew is a member, all with their own slightly different spelling variations of words.

Ancient languages such as Akkadian and Chaldean were Semitic; Assyrian, Aramaic, and Arabic are included in this group as well. See Rendsburg , pp.

The Gospel of Matthew tells us that Jesus Christ was born in the final years of the tyrant known as Herod the Great. He tells us that when Jesus was born, Herod .

The “gate of god” translation is increasingly viewed as a folk etymology to explain an unknown original non-Semitic placename. The site at Babylon consists of a number of mounds covering an area of about 2 by 1 kilometer 1. Originally, the river roughly bisected the city, but the course of the river has since shifted so that most of the remains of the former western part of the city are now inundated. Some portions of the city wall to the west of the river also remain.

It is the site of Esagila , a temple of Marduk which also contained shrines to Ea and Nabu. Most of the Hellenistic remains are here. Its bricks have been subject to looting since ancient times. It held a palace built by Nebuchadnezzar. The water table in the region has risen greatly over the centuries, and artifacts from the time before the Neo-Babylonian Empire are unavailable to current standard archaeological methods.

Additionally, the Neo-Babylonians conducted significant rebuilding projects in the city, which destroyed or obscured much of the earlier record. Babylon was pillaged numerous times after revolting against foreign rule, most notably by the Hittites and Elamites in the 2nd millennium, then by the Neo-Assyrian Empire and the Achaemenid Empire in the 1st millennium.

The Third Millennium BC (3100-2100 BC):

See Article History Mesopotamian religion, beliefs and practices of the Sumerians and Akkadians , and their successors, the Babylonians and Assyrians , who inhabited ancient Mesopotamia now in Iraq in the millennia before the Christian era. These religious beliefs and practices form a single stream of tradition. Sumerian in origin, Mesopotamian religion was added to and subtly modified by the Akkadians Semites who emigrated into Mesopotamia from the west at the end of the 4th millennium bce , whose own beliefs were in large measure assimilated to, and integrated with, those of their new environment.

THE OLD IRANIAN CALENDARS 1: NOTES: 1. This paper was composed in November, [In I made a study of the history of the Iranian system of time-reckoning, with a view to writing an article on the subject in a Persian review.

In this post I will begin with briefly explaining the very concept of God as explained in different religions followed by comparison of how Have you every noticed the amazingly coincidental similarity between these two names – Jesus Christ and Lord Krishna – and asked yourselves, why the names of two major religious figures in two major religious are exactly the same?

Have you every looked at the evolution of religions and wondered if it’s possible that Christianity is actually derived from Hinduism partly the story of Lord Krishna? Well, you’re not the only one! Many leading experts believe that not only the name Jesus Christ is a derivative of Lord Krishna, but also, the religion of Christianity might be partially and fully derived from Hinduism! Once we start comparing Christianity and the teachings of Christ with the life and teaching of Lord Krishna and Hinduism in general , we immediately start seeing glaring similarities in the two.

Let’s analyze some of these similarities – Similarities between Krishna’s father Vasudev and Christ’s father Joseph – Joseph had eleven brothers in Matthew’s genealogy , meaning they were all 12 brothers. The name “Vasudev” is actually a part of the famous Hindu “12 syllable mantra”. Now, this one similarity in numbers might be disregarded by Christian skeptics as a coincidence, but when we start looking deeper into different versions of Bible yes, Bible has many versions and sometimes contradictory stories , we find that this number 12 is repeated again and again in the life of Jesus.

For example, the last time we see Joseph in any of the gospels is also when Jesus was 12 years old this is found in the story of passover visit to the temple in Luke.

Old Iranian Calendars

See Article History Epigraphy, the study of written matter recorded on hard or durable material. Babylonian clay tablet giving a detailed description of the total solar eclipse of April 15, bc. The tablet is a goal-year text, a type that lists astronomical data of predictive use for an assigned group of years. Richard Stephenson; in the collection of the British Museum Because such media were exclusive or predominant in many of the earliest human civilizations, epigraphy is a prime tool in recovering much of the firsthand record of antiquity.

It is thus an essential adjunct of the study of ancient peoples; it secures and delivers the primary data on which historical and philological disciplines alike depend for their understanding of the recorded past.

Babylon was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC. The city was built on the Euphrates river and divided in equal parts along its left and right banks, with steep embankments to contain the river’s seasonal floods. Babylon was originally a small Akkadian town dating from the period of the Akkadian Empire c. BC.. The town became part of a small independent.

But others remained behind. The Jews in Babylon prospered, and for centuries Babylon was renowned as the center of Jewish learning, where the scriptures of Torah and later the Talmud were written. Furthermore, while in Babylon the Jews absorbed from the Babylonians the idea of universal empire, which influenced Jewish self-understanding ever after as a people called to establish God’s universal reign. History During the first centuries of the “Old Babylonian” period that followed the Sumerian revival under Ur-III , kings and people in high position often had Amorite names, and supreme power rested at Isin.

A constant intercourse was maintained between Babylonia and the west—with Babylonian officials and troops passing to Syria and Canaan , while Amorite colonists were established in Babylonia for the purposes of trade. One of these Amorites, Abi-ramu or Abram by name, is the father of a witness to a deed dated in the reign of Hammurabi’s grandfather.

His identity with the biblical Abraham is unproven, however. The city of Babylon was given hegemony over Mesopotamia by their sixth ruler, Hammurabi B. He was a very efficient ruler, giving the region stability after turbulent times, and transforming what had been an unstable collection of city-states into an empire that spanned the fertile crescent of Mesopotamia.

The Oldest Song in the World

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